The States Of matter Part 2- More Features Of The Three States Of Matter — February 6, 2017

The States Of matter Part 2- More Features Of The Three States Of Matter

If you have not seen the first part of states of matter then please do, as it will inform you on the basics of the states of matter. In this post, I will be covering some more features and properties of the states of matter. These properties are, things like; does it flow, can you compress it and what formation are its molecules in (see the previous post for this particular question)? I have provided a link to a helpful image below to answer these questions.


Thank you for viewing this post, I hope you found it interesting and learned, if you did, then please leave a comment on what you learned, and if you have any suggestions then do the same. Bye!

Plasma — February 2, 2017


Plasma. AKA the 4th state of matter. Plasma is a strange thing that is much rarer on our planet than the other three common states of matter (see my previous post for more information on the topic of the other three states of matter).To put it very simply, a plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both ions and electrons, to coexist. The funny thing about that is, that as far as we know, plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe.

Plasma is most often seen in a plasma ball on earth, where the ball is filled with a mixture of noble gasses with an electrode (an electrical conductor used to make contact with a part of the circuit, in this case, the glass globe, ball, or sphere, that is not metal) in the centre. Plasma is transmitted to the outer casing where electricity is supplied. Humans are electrical conductors so when we touch the glass there is more electricity on that spot, so the plasma is drawn to it, which is why when you touch the plasma ball, there are purple rods of plasma drawn to your hand.

If you read this, then I am going to do a riddle/puzzle based on plasma, so be sure to check that out! I hope you learned from this, and if you did, then please leave a comment on what you learned, or what you think I should do next! Bye!

Air and Water Resistance — January 31, 2017

Air and Water Resistance

Air and Water resistance are both forces that work in similar ways; they both slow down moving objects using the same principal. When a moving object is traveling through the air, it is his hitting air molecules all the time, which means that the object is being slowed down. Think of it like this; You are the object that is traveling and you are running through on obstacle course and every time you hit an obstacle you slow down or stop. It is exactly the same thing in real life but with air molecules instead of obstacles. The same goes for water resistance as well. In water, there are a lot more molecules so the object is being slowed down much more frequently than when it is traveling through the air. When a moving object accelerates, the air/water resistance increases. This is because when the object is moving quicker, it is hitting the molecules at a faster rate, which is how air and water resistance are measured, so it increases.

There is no such thing as solid resistance (in case you were wondering) because instead of slowing a moving object down, it would most likely stop it (depending on the object and the solid. E.g. a tennis ball would be stopped by an iron wall, whilst it would not be stopped by a paper wall). This is because the solids molecules are much more tightly packed and would slow down the object at a much faster rate, due to the same principle that air and water resistance use.

Thank you for reading this post, as always, I hope you learned from me and if you have any suggestions/improvements, I would appreciate it if you left a comment. Bye!

The States of Matter Part 1-What are the States of Matter? — January 29, 2017

The States of Matter Part 1-What are the States of Matter?

There are three main states of matter in our universe and they are solid, liquid and gas. Everything exists in these three states. A state can change depending on the temperature of the substance, but it will never be another state, other than the three mentioned (apart from plasma, which will be explained another time). All the states are different. They have different properties, uses, and functions, but no matter what the state, the substance will always be the same. Take water, for example, in its gas state it is water vapor/steam, in its liquid state it is water and in its solid state it is ice, but in all the states it is still a form of water. Let’s take a look at why they change.

The change between the solid and liquid states is called melting and it occurs at different temperatures depending on the substance. For water (H2O), the melting point is 0ºC, but for *Iron (Fe), it is 1538º C, because the bonds of Iron are far stronger than that of ice. The reason they change state is because when the molecules are heated, they gain thermal energy (they get faster because of the heat) and eventually go fast enough to break free of the bonds of the state and turn into a new one (This is because the molecules form new arrangements).This is why Iron has a much higher melting point than water; because the bonds are far harder to break than that of water. This change only occurs in melting and boiling/evaporating (the change from liquid to gas). The opposite also occurs; the substance can get colder and form bonds. Depending on the state they are turning into, the pattern of the molecules will change as shown below:734px-states_of_matter_en-svg

As a solid, the molecules of the substance are very close together and arranged in a regular pattern. This makes most solids strong and sturdy as the molecules are tightly bonded and harder to split than liquid and gas states. In a liquid state, the molecules of the substance are still tightly packed, but in a more random pattern where the bonds are weaker than that of a solid. As we can see, the different states have different patterns and arrangements of the molecules. In the gas state, the molecules are randomly arranged and far apart from each other. They whizz around very fast and often collide into each other. In the gas state, the molecules are not bonded.*

Thank you for reading, as always, I hope you learned from this post. If you have any suggestions for improvements then I would gladly appreciate it if you left a comment. I will aim to do part 2 for states of matter and possibly a post about plasma in a couple of weeks, but for now, bye!

*other properties of the states will be explained in other posts, but for now, I am trying to keep this post to a reasonable length.

Forces — January 27, 2017


No, don’t worry. I know what you’re thinking, but no. This is not turning into a star wars fan page. We are still in science, just on a new topic; forces. We might not notice it, but forces are always acting on us. From gravity to upthrust, friction to air resistance, we are always the subject of forces. But what is a force? A force is something that affects the direction or speed of an object. Whilst different forces have different ways of doing this, it’s something they all have in common. Another thing forces often do is change the shape of an object. The forces that are capable of such a thing are mainly contact forces, which will be explained in the next section. However, not all forces are capable of this.

There are often two main categories used to define a force; contact and non-contact forces (or rebels and dark side if you’re a star wars fan). If it is not clear enough already, a contact force is a force that involves contact with another object, and a non-contact force is something that does not. Push and pull are both contact forces as well as friction, upthrust and air and water resistance*. But there are only three non-contact forces and they are gravity/weight, magnetism, and static electricity.

Another force that is not noticeable and has no effect on us is the resultant force. It is the effect on the object that all the forces have added together and is calculated by subtracting the lesser force (in N) from the greater force. E.g. if a weightlifter is lifting a weight of 750N and is pulling upwards at a force of 755N then the bar will go upwards because that force is greater than the downward force exerted by the weight. In this case, the resultant force is 5 N going upwards.

Thank you for reading this article, I hope you learned from it, and if you have anything that you would like to add/suggest please leave a comment and I will take it into consideration.

*which I will be doing more on in the future

P.S. May the force be with you!

Mammals — October 7, 2016


Mammals are one of the five main types of animal on this earth. This post is about what they are and how to distinguish them as mammals.

Mammals are recognised as mammals because they are vertebrates (animals with a spine) as well as their distinguishing features that may not be visible to the human eye. These features include three ear bones and something called the Neocortex. The Neocortex is a part of the brain that all mammals that have been studied to date have. No other class of animal owns this feature in their body. It is made of 6 layers labelled from I-VI with I being the outermost section and VI being the innermost section. It allows mammals to have better memory, spatial reasoning and in humans, it helps us with language. But I don’t want go too off subject (although I probably already have), so lets get back to mammals! Mammals are typically quite fury and small. Things like cats, dogs, and rodents are all types of mammals, but they can vary in size, shape, and style of life (how they cope with their surroundings). For example, big cats like lions, jaguars and cheetahs are very different to the pet cats that we might have at home, but believe it or not, they are in the same family/class and share several of the same features in life. There are many other mammals, and indeed animals any other class that share the same types of body and skills as they originated from the same ancestors and are still the same species.

This is all I will include in this post, but for more information on this subject, please read my other posts as I try to include a range of subjects, including this. Thank you for reading, and if you feel like this was not enough, why don’t you head over to BBC Bitesize? It is a great website with a range of levels and subjects to choose from. Thanks for reading, I hope you learnt from this post and that you now love science as much as I do!

Who Am I? — October 5, 2016

Who Am I?

On this website, you might have realised some little pictures of a man with grey and black hair popping up. That is my Dad. He owns this WordPress account and therefore has his own website; policy for play. His is about something completely different (the study of play), but that does not take away the quality of it. I am a year seven student and I am intrigued by science. I think it is an amazing subject with all the things you could The school I go to has an amazing science team and they have inspired me to write this blog. I encourage you to do something similar, as it is fun and is a great way of passing the time. I hope I have inspired you on this blog so that you to can enjoy learning as much as I do.

Atoms, Elements, Compounds and Mixtures — October 4, 2016

Atoms, Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

As you might have guessed, this post is all about atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures; the basic building blocks of our world. I wont babble on for to long, so lets get straight into it!

Firstly, Atoms…

Atoms make up everything around us. Without atoms nothing would exist. Whilst they often come individually, they can come in pairs or groups as well, these are called molecules and will be explained in the next section. There are three parts to an atom; the proton, the neutron and the electron. The proton gives off a positive charge from the centre of the atom (the nucleus) whilst the electron has a negative charge, therefore cancelling each other out to make the atom electrically neutral. Electrons can be both lost and gained and when they do the atom becomes an ion. There are two types of ion; the first is made when the atom loses an electron, it becomes a positively charged ion because there is nothing to cancel out the positively charged proton. But when it gains an electron, it becomes a negatively charged ion because there are more electrons than the amount that is needed to cancel out the positively charged proton. The smallest individual atom is the hydrogen atom. If we were to be more scientific, we could say that it had the smallest atomic mass. Its atomic mass is only 1, compared to the heaviest atom on the periodic table: Ununhexium (Uuh) with an atomic mass of 116.  To put it into contrast of how small they are, we inhale 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms of oxygen every time we breathe!

The next bit will be on elements (I am trying to keep the order of the title)…

An element is made when one or more of the same type of atom are combined. They cannot be made by different atoms. For example pure gold and pure carbon are made of only gold and carbon atoms which means that all types of elements are unique. Some elements are made by joining up with identical versions of themselves whilst others are single atoms. When an atom joins up with another of its type it becomes a  molecule, but we haven’t come to that just yet. There are over 100 elements on our planet that we currently know of. Hydrogen is the smallest individual element despite it being made of two atoms.

Now comes compounds…

A compound is made when two different atoms/elements bond to make one. For example, water is not on the periodic table and is made by 1 oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms, this is shown as H2O. Other compounds include carbon dioxide(CO2) and carbon monoxide(CO) and sodium chloride(NaCl). One of the most important things about a compound is that they are BONDED. This means they are chemically joined to make something else.

And finally… Oh well you get the point!

A mixture is made when two or more atoms are mixed together, but not bonded. They can be separated without a chemical reaction, like fruit in a fruit salad; together they make something but when you separate them they have their own  individual properties. Another feature of a mixture is that you can vary the amount of each element, whilst in a compound you can either make more or less of it but you cannot change its formula. They can be useful when making medicines because you can change the power of it.

I hope that this was helpful, and that you learnt from me. As always, if there is anything I missed out I would appreciate it if you told me by commenting on this post, because I can learn from you as much as you can learn from me!

Metals And Non-Metals —

Metals And Non-Metals

This post is about metals and non-metals, how to find them, and their unique properties. I am sure you have at least heard of the two before, but if you haven’t, then don’t worry, all will be explained in this post.

A metal is something that is usually reflective, an electrical conductor, a thermal (heat) conductor and typically quite hard. A non-metal is usual exactly the opposite of a metal, e.g. Hydrogen (a non-metal) is a gas and very light, whereas Iron (a metal) is quite heavy and not easily squashed in its form at room temperature (solid). As you can hopefully see, there is a big difference between the two. Also, if you are trying to separate a metal from a non-metal, there are many ways to do so. One of them could be that you could heat both up to the same, fairly high, temperature and see which of the two or more cools the quickest. If there is a significant difference, then it is most likely that the one that cools quicker is a metal. Whilst this is not completely accurate, it is a handy method of separating the two. This is easy to do because metals are heat conductors whilst non-metals are not, therefore, metals are more used to heat and will heat and cool quicker than non-metals. There are other ways of completing this task, but they will not be explained in this particular post. If you are interested in finding out more, I strongly recommend the BBC Bitesize website as it is extremely helpful, and all simple to understand.

I hope that you gained information from this, but if you didn’t, then I am extremely sorry as the point of this blog is to help you learn. If I missed out anything, please tell me, because I want to learn as much as you do.

The Periodic Table — October 3, 2016

The Periodic Table

The periodic table is a table containing all the elements that we currently know of. It was created by a Siberian scientist named Dmitri Mendeleev who was born in 1834 and died in 1907. This is what the periodic table look like:periodic_table_large.png (1719×941)

This is quite an advanced version, so if you don’t understand I don’t blame you. It is very detailed but I will try to explain it as best I can. Each element has its own atomic symbol, atomic mass and name. On this diagram, they have identified Iron as an example, so I will to. As you can see, it has in large letters Fe. This is its atomic symbol, but with most elements, it is the first letter or first three letters that represent, in fact for all of them, but because science is something all over the world, the periodic table has different languages on it. E.g. Fe is the first two letters of the Latin word Ferrum. But with elements like Hydrogen, the atomic symbol is H and Oxygen is O, this is why it is important to understand the periodic table because if you fail to learn about it you will be humiliated when tested for not knowing another language, or something like that. In addition to that, lots of chemistry will be very hard as lots of it is based on the periodic table. Now, I hope you don’t get the wrong idea when I say learn; I don’t mean that you need to know every single element, but it is important to have a basic understanding of it for the same reasons stated above.

I hope you have learnt from this and don’t worry, if this is not enough, then I will be posting lots on this particular subject as it is my strongest. But for now, keep learning and hopefully by the time you’ve finished reading my posts, you’ll be something of an expert!